Today, Lookout is releasing the technical details behind “Trident,” a series of iOS vulnerabilities that allow an attacker to remotely jailbreak a target user’s device and install spyware.In August, Lookout, in conjunction with Citizen Lab, discovered “Pegasus,” a sophisticated piece of mobile spyware used by nation state actors to surveil high-value targets. The so-called “cyber arms dealer,” NSO Group created the spyware, which, at the time, relied on the three Trident vulnerabilities to remotely and silently compromise a device. Lookout and Citizen Lab worked directly with Apple to close the holes and cripple this attack vector used by Pegasus for the compromise.
In the process, Lookout and Citizen Lab also identified a related vulnerability Mac OS, which Apple quickly patched as well.
Below you can find the full technical details behind the vulnerabilities. Want more background on the Pegasus malware? Microsoft noted in a blog, “Many security firms described it as the most sophisticated attack they’ve seen on any endpoint.” Check out our coverage of the Pegasus attack and Trident vulnerabilities, including our original technical report and analysis for CSOs and CIOs.
The technical report covers the following:
- CVE-2016-4657: Memory Corruption in WebKit - A vulnerability in Safari WebKit allows the attacker to compromise the device when the user clicks on a link.
- CVE-2016-4655: Kernel Information Leak - A kernel base mapping vulnerability that leaks information to the attacker that allows him to calculate the kernel’s location in memory.
- CVE-2016-4656: Kernel Memory corruption leads to Jailbreak - 32 and 64 bit iOS kernel-level vulnerabilities that allow the attacker to silently jailbreak the device and install surveillance software.
- The Pegasus Persistence Mechanism used for remaining on the device after compromise.
Special thanks to Max Bazaliy, Cris Neckar, Greg Sinclair, in7egral, and the Lookout Security Research team for their work and research into these vulnerabilities.
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